Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health concern that poses a serious threat to the control of infectious disease. A continuous increase in rates of AMR poses a challenge to the global community and impedes progress previously made in improving health outcomes. This report examines how AMR can be addressed using international instruments, and the appropriate role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in this task. It is recommended that global collective action on AMR be achieved by implementing a Treaty under Article 19 and a Regulation under Article 21 of the WHO’s Constitution. This suite of international instruments can be used to address the greatest proportion of issues that currently impede AMR’s resolution and can mobilize the most effective action. This report further establishes that the WHO has legal authority under its Constitution to create these international instruments to address AMR.