Global Antimicrobial Resistance


Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens arise from the overuse of antimicrobials in humans, agriculture, and the environment, rendering many existing antimicrobial treatments ineffective. Without concerted global collective action, the number of annual deaths due to resistant infections will continue to increase, as will the economic and social impacts of drug resistance. In order to successfully address the threat of antimicrobial resistance, coordinated global action is needed to bring about new innovation, collaboration, and attention among global health actors and the public. We are working to bring the science of global strategy to bear on how to achieve the necessary level of global action.


What we have done at GSL

Through recent projects and publications, GSL has strived to bring more attention to the issue of antimicrobial resistance and formulate ways to assess and address it. GSL focuses on the global governance of antimicrobial resistance, and particularly on the development of a new global legal agreement to promote global cooperation. We have identified three key areas for global action on antimicrobial resistance: access to antimicrobials for those who need them; conservation of antimicrobials to reduce overuse; and innovation to find new antimicrobials and alternative treatments and diagnostic tools.

What we are currently doing

GSL works closely with the World Health Organization, national governments and colleagues at universities around the world.  We recently analyzed data collected by the World Health Organization as part of their global tripartite self-assessment survey of country progress on antimicrobial resistance. We are also facilitating policy dialogue about a potential global legal agreement on antimicrobial resistance.


  1. Hoffman SJ, Caleo GM, Daulaire N, Elbe S, Matsoso P, Mossialos E, et al. (2015) Strategies for achieving global collective action on antimicrobial resistance. Bull World Health Organ. 93(12): 867-76.
  2. Hoffman SJ, Outterson K. (2015) What Will It Take to Address the Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance? J Law Med Ethics. 43(2): 363-8.
  3. Behdinan A, Hoffman SJ. (2016) Towards an International Treaty on Antimicrobial Resistance. Ottawa Law Review. 47(2): 507-32.