Yu, A.Y., Rogers Van Katwyk, S. & Hoffman, S.J., 2019. Probing popular and political discourse on antimicrobial resistance in China. Global Health Research and Policy , 4 (6). Article
Andresen, S., et al., 2018. What Can Be Learned from Experience with Scientific Advisory Committees in the Field of International Environmental Politics?. Global Challenges , 2 (9). Article PDF
Gopinathan, U., Hoffman, S.J. & Ottersen, T., 2018. Scientific Advisory Committees at the World Health Organization: A Qualitative Study of How Their Design Affects Quality, Relevance, and Legitimacy. Global Challenges , 2 (9). Article PDF
Behdinan, A., et al., 2018. An Overview of Systematic Reviews to Inform the Institutional Design of Scientific Advisory Committees. Global Challenges , 2 (9). Article PDF
Groux, G.M.N., Hoffman, S.J. & Ottersen, T., 2018. A Typology of Scientific Advisory Committees. Global Challenges , 2 (9). Article PDF
Røttingen, J.‐A. & Ottersen, T., 2018. Supra‐SAC: Need and Role for an All‐of‐Government Scientific Advisory Committee. Global Challenges , 2 (9). Article PDF
Hoffman, S.J., et al., 2018. Towards a Systematic Understanding of How to Institutionally Design Scientific Advisory Committees: A Conceptual Framework and Introduction to a Special Journal Issue. Global Challenges , 2 (9). Article PDF
Hoffman, S.J., et al., 2018. Designing Scientific Advisory Committees for a Complex World. Global Challenges , 2 (9). Article PDF
Hoffman, S.J. & Silverberg, S.L., 2018. Delays in Global Disease Outbreak Responses: Lessons from H1N1, Ebola, and Zika. American Journal of Public Health , 108 (3) , pp. 329-333. Article PDF
Gopinathan, U. & Hoffman, S.J., 2018. Institutionalising an evidence-informed approach to guideline development: progress and challenges at the World Health Organization. BMJ Global Health , 3 (5) , pp. 1-14. Article PDF
Habibi, R. & Hoffman, S.J., 2018. Legalizing Cannabis Violates the UN Drug Control Treaties, But Progressive Countries Like Canada Have Options. Ottawa Law Review , 49 (2) , pp. 1-37. Article PDF
Groux, G.M.N., Hoffman, S.J. & Ottersen, T., 2018. A Typology of Scientific Advisory Committees. Global Challenges , pp. 1-7. ArticleAbstract
The era of evidence‐informed decision‐making has seen increased use of the scientific advisory committee (SAC) to provide decision‐makers with scientific advice, despite limited evidence of the effectiveness or best strategies for designing these committees. In this study, an in‐depth review of academic and gray literature is undertaken to outline the global landscape of SACs. The development of a typology is also undertaken that categorizes SACs along six dimensions: 1) sector, 2) level of operation, 3) permanence, 4) target audience, 5) autonomy, and 6) nature of advice. It is found that SACs differ profoundly in each of these dimensions and provide examples demonstrating this variation. The landscape and typology can help decision‐makers understand the key elements of SAC design and reform, and the results will also inform future research on the design and effectiveness of SACs. With SACs expected to promote evidence‐informed decision‐making, it is imperative that the design of these committees themselves is guided by evidence.
Fafard, P., et al., 2018. Contested roles of Canada’s Chief Medical Officers of Health. Canadian Journal of Public Health. ArticleAbstract
The roles and responsibilities of Canada’s Chief Medical Officers of Health (CMOHs) are contested. On the one hand, they are senior public servants who confidentially advise government on public health matters and manage the implementation of government priorities. On the other hand, CMOHs are perceived as independent communicators and advocates for public health. This article analyzes public health legislation across Canada that governs the CMOH role. Our legal analysis reveals that the presence and degree of advisory, communication, and management roles for the CMOH vary considerably across the country. In many jurisdictions, the power and authority of the CMOH is not clearly defined in legislation. This creates great potential for confusion and conflict, particularly with respect to CMOHs’ authority to act as public health advocates. We call on governments to clarify their preferences when it comes to the CMOH role and either amend the relevant statute or otherwise find ways to clarify the mandate of their CMOHs.
Gopinathan, U., et al., 2018. Global governance and the broader determinants of health: A comparative case study of UNDP's and WTO's engagement with global health. Global Public Health , pp. 1-15. Article PDF
Rogers Van Katwyk, S., Jones, S.L. & Hoffman, S.J., 2018. Mapping Educational Opportunities for Healthcare Workers on Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship Around the World. Human Resources for Health , 16 (9) , pp. 1-18. Article PDF
Hoffman, S.J. & Cole, C., 2018. Defining the Global Health System and Systematically Mapping its Network of Actors. Globalization and Health , 14 (38) , pp. 1-19. Article PDF
Fafard, P. & Hoffman, S.J., 2018. Rethinking Knowledge Translation for Public Health Policy. Evidence and Policy , pp. 1-11. Article PDF
Nixon, S.A., et al., 2018. Canada’s Role in Global Health: Supporting Equity and Global Citizenship as a Middle Power. The Lancet , 391 , pp. 1736-1748. Article PDF
Hoffman, S.J., 2017. Canada Should Not Legalize Cannabis Until It Withdraws from the UN Drug Control Treaties. Centre for International Governance Innovation. Article
Rogers Van Katwyk, S., et al., 2017. Government policy interventions to reduce human antimicrobial use: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic Reviews , 6 (256) , pp. 1-10. PDFAbstract


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognized threat to global public health. Increasing AMR and a dry pipeline of novel antimicrobial drugs have put AMR in the international spotlight. One strategy to combat AMR is to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption. Governments around the world have been experimenting with different policy interventions, such as regulating where antimicrobials can be sold, restricting the use of last-resort antimicrobials, funding AMR stewardship programs, and launching public awareness campaigns. To inform future action, governments should have access to synthesized data on the effectiveness of large-scale AMR interventions. This planned systematic review will (1) identify and describe previously evaluated government policy interventions to reduce human antimicrobial use and (2) estimate the effectiveness of these different strategies.


An electronic search strategy has been developed in consultation with two research librarians. Seven databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PAIS Index, Web of Science, and PubMed excluding MEDLINE) will be searched, and additional studies will be identified using several gray literature search strategies. To be included, a study must (1) clearly describe the government policy and (2) use a rigorous design to quantitatively measure the impact of the policy on human antibiotic use. The intervention of interest is any policy intervention enacted by a government or government agency in any country to change human antimicrobial use. Two independent reviewers will screen for eligibility using criteria defined a priori.

Data will be extracted with Covidence software using a customized extraction form. If sufficient data exists, a meta-analysis by intervention type will be conducted as part of the effectiveness review. However, if there are too few studies or if the interventions are too heterogeneous, data will be tabulated and a narrative synthesis strategy will be used.


This evidence synthesis is intended for use by policymakers, public health practitioners, and researchers to inform future government policies aiming to address antimicrobial resistance. This review will also identify gaps in the evidence about the effectiveness of different policy interventions to inform future research priorities.